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BACKGROUND: Prevalence of tuberculosis in vulnerable groupssuch as prisoners is usually high, and the problem is worsened bypoor treatment outcomes. In spite of this, there is limitedinformation regarding tuberculosis in prisons of Ethiopia. Hence,this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of tuberculosis andtreatment outcomes of patients with tuberculosis among inmates ofDebrebirhan prison in North Shoa, Ethiopia.METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conductedamong inmates of Debrebirhan prison. Data were collected byreviewing the medical charts and other records of prison inmatesdiagnosed and treated for tuberculosis between September 2010and August 2015. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSSversion 21.0.RESULTS: A total of 162 patients with tuberculosis were registeredand treated at Debrebirhan prison health center within the fiveyears study period. The overall average prevalence was found to be32 per 1538 (2139 per 100,000) prison inmates. Regardingtreatment outcome, 44(27.2%) were cured, 59(36.42%) completedtreatment, 2(1.24%) were treatment failures, 6(3.72%) died and51(31.5%) were not evaluated. The five year’s treatment successrate was found to be 63.62%. Area of residence (AOR= 3.59; 95%CI: 1.44, 8.93), duration of imprisonment (AOR = 3.67; 95% CI:1.53, 8.78) and history of tuberculosis were significantly associatedwith treatment outcome of tuberculosis.CONCLUSION: This study showed high prevalence of tuberculosisin Debrebirhan prison. It also revealed that the treatment successrate of patients with tuberculosis was lower than the target set byWorld Health Organization.