The Tragedy of the African National Congress (ANC) and its Cadre Deployment Policy: Ramifications for Municipal Stability, Corruption and Service Deliver
Main Article Content
The much-anticipated shift from apartheid to democratic rule in 1994 brought much jubilation in Africa and globally. South Africa had entered a terrain where a democratically elected party governed it in the African National Congress (ANC). Looking to alter the apartheid policies of the erstwhile National Party (NP), the ANC came into power with no formal experience of governing a state. However, since Nelson Mandela to the current Ramaphosa administration has made some strides in development and economic growth blueprints in South Africa's relatively young 28-year democratic history. As a form of government closer to the people, municipalities are seen as a fundamental area of government besides others, including poverty alleviation, employment creation, and service delivery. However, in the past two decades, the ANC has taken center stage in its cadre deployment policy, resulting in an upsurge in corruption, lack of service delivery, poor performance, and a relative decline in its hegemonic political power. This article examines the link between cadre deployment, municipal stability, corruption, and service delivery. The article shows that cadre deployment has not benefited individuals at the grass-root level because of incompetent individuals, lack of qualifications, corruption, tender greed, comrade beneficiary, and lack of managerial vision at the local government level.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Brooks, H. (2004). The dominant-party system: Challenges of South Africa’s Second Decade of Democracy. Journal of African Elections, 3(2), 12 1-153.
Connolly, L. (2013). Fragility and the State: Post-Apartheid South Africa and the State-Society Contract in the 21st Century. African Journal of Conflict Resolution, 13(2), 87-112
Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approached. Washington DC, Sage Publications.
Desai, A. (2018). The Zuma Movement: Between Tender Based Capitalist and Radical Economic Transformation. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 36(4), 499–513.
Ennis, L.D. (1999). A Theoretical Framework: The Central Piece of Research Plan. Journal of teaching in Physical Education, 18(2), 129–140.
Franks, P.E. (2014). The Crisis of the South African Public Sector. The Journal of Helen Suzman Foundation, pp. 74, 48–56.
Kivunja, C., & Kuyini, A.B. (2017). Understanding and Applying Research Paradigms in Educational Contexts. International Journal of Higher Education, 6(5), 26-41
Kondlo, K. (2017). The Context of South African Government and Politics. In Landsberg, C., & Graham, S (eds). Government and Politics in South Africa: Coming of Age. Pretoria, Van Schaik.
Magidimisha, H.H., & Chipungu, L. (2019). Spatial Planning in Service Delivery: Towards Distributive Justice in South Africa. Cham, Palgrave Macmillan.
Mantzaris, E. (2014). Municipal Financial Management to Fight Corruption and Enhance Development: A Holistic Approach. African Journal of Public Affairs, 7(2), 81-91.
Manyak, R.K., & Nkuna, N.W. (2014). The Phenomenon of Corruption in the South African Public Sector: Challenges and Opportunities. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(17), 1572-1580.
Marquette, H., & Peiffer, C. (2018). Grappling with the “real politics” of systematic corruption on theoretical debates versus “real;-world" functions. Governance, 31(3).
Masuku, M.M. & Jili, N.N. (2019). Public Service Delivery in South Africa: The Political Influence at Local Government Level. Journal of Public Affairs, 19(4), e1935.
Mchunu, N. (2018). The Impact of Corruption in Recruitment and Procurement within Local Government and its Impact on Service Delivery, using KwaZulu-Natal Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs as a case study. Masters Dissertation, University of KwaZulu-Natal.
Mitchell, L. (2020). Theoretical Understanding of Corruption in Iceland: Assessing the Fit-Principal-Agent and Collective Action Theory. Masters Dissertation, University of Iceland, Iceland.
Mlambo, D.N. (2019). Governance and Service Delivery in the Public Sector: The Case of South Africa under Jacob Zuma (2009-2018). African Renaissance, 16(3), 2013-220.
Mlambo, D.N. (2020). Reframing the Notion of Regional Integration in Southern Africa: What role for Civil Society. E-Bangi Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 17(5), 144–154.
Mlambo, D.N. (2020). Sub-Regional Hegemons, Integration and Governance: South Africa’s role in Southern Africa Post Democratization. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Zululand, South Africa.
Mlambo, D.N., Mubecua, M.A., Mpanza, S.E. & Mlambo, V.H. (2019). Corruption and its Implications for Development and Good Governance: A Perspective from Post-Colonial Africa. Journal of Economic and Behavioral Studies, 11(1), 39-47.
Ndedi, A., & Kok, L. (2017). Roadmap for Effective and Efficient Cadre Deployment in South Africa. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3026392 Accessed 29 March 2021.
Nealer, E. Local Government and Service Delivery. In van der Waldt, G., van Niekerk, D. & Venter, A. Municipal Management Serving the People. Claremont, Juta and Company.
Ocholla, D.N., & Le Rouj, J. (2011). Conceptions and Misconceptions of Theoretical Frameworks in Library and Information Science research. A case study of selected theses and dissertations from eastern and southern African universities. Mousaion, 29(2), 61-67
Qobo, M. (2019). Party and State in South Africa. https://media.africaportal.org/documents/CDE-VIEWPOINTS-Party-and-State-in-South-Africa-final.pdf Accessed 1 March 2021.
Schwertheim, H. (2017). Innovation in Anti-Corruption Approaches. https://www.idea.int/gsod-2017/files/IDEA-GSOD-2017-RESOURCE-GUIDE-ANTI-CORRUPTION.pdf Accessed 22 January 2021.
Sebake, B.K., & Sebola, M.P. (2014). Growing Trends and Tendencies of Corruption in the South African Public service: Negative Contribution to Service Delivery, Journal of Public Administration, 49(3), 744-755
Shava, E., & Chamisa, S.F. (2018). Cadre Deployment Policy and its Effects on Performance Management in South African Local Government: A Critical Review. Politeia, 37(1), 1-18.
Thebe, T. (2017). Political Education for Good Governance in South Africa’s Local Government and Communities. African Journal of Public Affairs, 9(5), 123–135.
Twala, C. (2014). The African National Congress (ANC) and the Cadre Deployment Policy in the Post-apartheid South Africa: A Product of Democratic Centralisation or a Recipe for a Constitutional Crisis? Journal of Social Sciences, 41(2), 159–165.
Walton, G.W., & Jones, A. (2017). The Geographies of Collective Action, Principal-Agent and Potential Corruption in Papua New Guinea. Development Policy Centre Discussion Paper.