Size: (8000 – 10,000 words)

This type of scientific article is commonly accepted by PJGD generated out of original research conducted on empirical line or developed in the form of review under the specified scope of the journal.

Empirical Research Article

Empirical research derives knowledge from actual experience rather than from theory or belief and is primarily based on observation and experience to measure population, behavior, or phenomena. In such studies, primary data are based on empirical evidence, therefore, subjected to both qualitative and quantitative instruments of data gathering to answer the empirical questions. The format for developing a scientific article is called “IMRaD” to communicate empirical research findings. Followed by Abstract, such article typically has four major components:

Abstract: Its Thematic Areas

  • It includes the description or statement of the problem being investigated
  • It includes the population and pertinent characteristics or behavior of the population
  • It describes the appropriate methodology and instruments
  • It sums up the basic findings of the research
  • It winds up with conclusions, implications, and recommendations (if any) of the research’s findings
  • No citations should be included within the abstract
  • Acronyms and abbreviations should be included only if used more than once 


Empirical articles usually have four main components besides a list of references:

  1. Introduction (Why did you start?): It traces the way the problem is being investigated. It clearly justifies the ground and purpose of the investigation. The flow should be from general to particular.
  2. Methodology (what did you do?): It indicates how the investigation was conducted; what procedures were used.
  3. Results (what did you find?): It reports the findings and analyses of the investigation.
  4. Discussion (what does it mean?): It summarizes, interprets, and discusses the implications of the investigation results.
  5. References: All citations must be acknowledged in the Reference section.

Specific Guideline to Prepare Research Articles:

The Research Article shall contain the following in the order given.

Title page

  • The ‘Title of the Article’ must be written in full.
  • The full names, institutional addresses, and e-mail addresses of all authors must be included on the title page. The corresponding author should be clearly indicated.


The abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 350 words and must be structured into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusion followed by 5 keywords. The abstract should be in Times New Roman and Italic with font size 11.


The introduction section should contain the following:

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Objectives of the study (General and Specific Objectives)
  • Significance of the Study
  • Limitations and Delimitations of the Study

Literature Review

The literature review must include all the relevant materials used for the study. It is preferable to organize the literature review briefly under Conceptual and Theoretical Framework; Methodological Framework; and Empirical Framework.       

Materials and Methods

This should include a brief description of the study area, the design of the study, the study participants (sample size and procedures of sampling), the data collection procedures, data entry, data analysis and interpretation, and ethical issues if necessary. 


The results or findings as per the nature of the study design (descriptive or prescriptive) should be explained clearly. Illustrations, figures, graphs, tables should be followed by an explanation and must not be used from other sources for copyright reasons. The author is responsible for understanding and following the principles that govern the fair use of quotations and illustrations and for obtaining written permission to publish, wherever necessary. Accuracy in citations and references is also the author’s responsibility. 

Conclusion and Recommendation

Based on the results/findings of the study, a conclusion should be drawn which can prove or disapprove the study undertaken on scientific or rational grounds. Based on the findings of the study, the recommendation should be forwarded (if any).


The referencing should follow the APA Style of citation to be used both in the main body of document followed by automatic generation of Reference after inserting into the types of source like a book, book section, journal article, article in a periodical, conference proceedings, report, website, document from the website, electronic sources, art, sound recording, performance, film, interview, patent, case, miscellaneous. Accuracy in citations and references is the author’s responsibility. 

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Alam, 2011). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Alam, 2011, p. 6).

Example for APA Style Reference


Acemoglu, D. & Robinson, J. (2012). Why nations fail. New York: Crown Business.

Book with Edition Specification

Adams, W.M. (2009). Green development: Environment and sustainability in a developing world (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Editorial Book

Asrat, A. (2016). The Ethiopian highland massifs: Spectacular volcanic landscapes with high biodiversity. In Anhaeusser C. R., Viljoen M. J., Viljoen R.(eds.). Africa’s Top Geological Sites. Cape Town: Struik Nature, pp. 189-196.

Research Working Paper

Bayly, C.A. (2008). Indigenous and colonial origins of comparative economic development: The case of colonial India and Africa. Policy Research Working Paper 4474, The World Bank.


Abuiyada, R. (2018). Traditional development theories have failed to address the needs of the majority of people at grassroots levels with reference to GAD. International Journal of Business and Social Science 9(9):115-119.


Online scholarly opinion/belief/impression/analysis etc.

Canela, G. (2014). Freedom of speech as a key element of the development
agenda. (Accessed: 27 April 2020).

Hassan, S. (2016). Ethiopia: The people want their country back. pambazuka. (Accessed: 26 April 2020).

Online Journal with Identifier (DOI, DOAJ, INDEX, ISSN, etc.)

Broadman, H.G. & Recanatini, F. (2001). Seeds of corruption – Do market institutions matter? Economic Policy in Transitional Economies 11(4): 359-392. DOI: 10.1023/A:1015264312632

Online Newspapers

El-Said, M. (July 13, 2020). AU-sponsored Nile dam talks end fruitless: Concerned parties to present separate final reports on GERD negotiations to AU chair on Tuesday. Daily News Egypt. Retrieved on 26/12/2020 from

Illustrations, figures, graphs, and tables

They must not be used from other sources for copyright reasons. The author is responsible for understanding and following the principles that govern the fair use of quotations and illustrations and for obtaining written permission to publish, wherever necessary.

Captions for Illustrations, figures, graphs, and tables

Each caption should include a one-sentence title that summarizes the content of the illustrations, figures, graphs, and tables. Captions should summarize the data such that a reader can comprehend the without having to refer to the text.

Use of Italics

The following must be italicized in the Manuscript besides the APA Style:



  et al



       inter alia

  per se



de jure and de facto

Expression of Views and Their Responsibility

The views expressed in the articles/reviews/reports published in this PJGD are those of respective authors/reviewers/researchers. Jimma University or Department of Governance and Development or the Editorial Board of PJGD shall in no way be responsible for them.