Size: (8,000-10,000 words)

A review article is sometimes called a literature review. It synthesizes or analyzes research already conducted in primary sources in a specific field through summary, classification, analysis, and comparison. The scientific objective here is to evaluate and to identify patterns, trends, relationships, contradictions, gaps, and inconsistencies in the literature and to recommend new research areas or to provide suggestions in the next step in search of solving the problem.


Specific Guideline to Prepare Review Article:

The Review Article shall contain the following in the order given.

Title page

  • The ‘Title of the Article’ must be written in full.
  • The full names, institutional addresses, and e-mail addresses of all authors must be included on the title page. The corresponding author should be clearly indicated.


The abstract of the review article should not exceed 350 words with a maximum of 5 keywords. The abstract should be in Times New Roman and Italic with font size 11. The abstract must be structured according to the following guidelines.

  • The author/s must provide a brief summary of the problem being investigated or examined.
  • The types of participants or population who are focused on in the primary studies.
  • Summarization of the main results in a clear, understandable, and precise way.
  • Conclusions of the review.
  • Implications for theory, policy, or practice.


  • The author needs to introduce the review title and giving the background information.
  • The author should reason out why this title is significant.
  • The author should clearly outline what he/she is going to discuss throughout the review.


  • The body structure of the review article may take different forms depending on the title undertaken.
  • The author should break the body of the review article into sections and should organize the sources either chronologically, thematically, or methodologically.
  • Once the organizational method for the body of the review is adopted, the sections (i.e. chronologically, thematically, or methodologically) which the author needs to include in the review article will be easy to figure out. In simple language, a chronological review will have subsections for each vital time period. A thematic review will have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. The Methodological review will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are being discussed.
  • In these sections, the author must be sure to describe and evaluate the studies in detail, comparing them and discussing their implications.

Materials and Methods

  • The author must identify the search strategies or specific organizational methods.
  • The author needs to develop the criteria of inclusion and exclusion.
  • Data sources and geographical information should be clearly stated,
  • The author needs to identify the characteristics of study subjects and statistical analyses used in the review

Results and Discussion

  • The author needs to restate the purpose and relevance of the review in light of undertaken objectives.
  • Results should include heterogeneity of the study groups or samples.
  • The author should include all the results including the statistical significance (if any).
  • Results and their relevance should clearly and concisely be discussed.

Conclusions and Recommendation

  • The author should discuss the implications of findings, interpretations and should identify unresolved questions.
  • The author should assess whether the review was adequate to reach a conclusion or not.
  • Based on the findings and conclusion, the author should forward the future direction of the research in the reviewed field.


The referencing should follow the APA Style of citation to be used both in the main body of document followed by automatic generation of Reference after inserting into the types of source like a book, book section, journal article, article in a periodical, conference proceedings, report, website, document from the website, electronic sources, art, sound recording, performance, film, interview, patent, case, miscellaneous. Accuracy in citations and references is the author’s responsibility. 

APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Alam, 2011). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Alam, 2011, p. 6).

Example for APA Style Reference


Acemoglu, D. & Robinson, J. (2012). Why nations fail. New York: Crown Business.

Book with Edition Specification

Adams, W.M. (2009). Green development: Environment and sustainability in a developing world (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Editorial Book

Asrat, A. (2016). The Ethiopian highland massifs: Spectacular volcanic landscapes with high biodiversity. In Anhaeusser C. R., Viljoen M. J., Viljoen R.(eds.). Africa’s Top Geological Sites. Cape Town: Struik Nature, pp. 189-196.

Research Working Paper

Bayly, C.A. (2008). Indigenous and colonial origins of comparative economic development: The case of colonial India and Africa. Policy Research Working Paper 4474, The World Bank.


Abuiyada, R. (2018). Traditional development theories have failed to address the needs of the majority of people at grassroots levels with reference to GAD. International Journal of Business and Social Science 9(9):115-119.


Online scholarly opinion/belief/impression/analysis etc.

Canela, G. (2014). Freedom of speech as a key element of the development
agenda. (Accessed: 27 April 2020).

Hassan, S. (2016). Ethiopia: The people want their country back. pambazuka. (Accessed: 26 April 2020).

Online Journal with Identifier (DOI, DOAJ, INDEX, ISSN, etc.)

Broadman, H.G. & Recanatini, F. (2001). Seeds of corruption – Do market institutions matter? Economic Policy in Transitional Economies 11(4): 359-392. DOI: 10.1023/A:1015264312632

Online Newspapers

El-Said, M. (July 13, 2020). AU-sponsored Nile dam talks end fruitless: Concerned parties to present separate final reports on GERD negotiations to AU chair on Tuesday. Daily News Egypt. Retrieved on 26/12/2020 from

Illustrations, Figures, Graphs, and Tables

They must not be used from other sources for copyright reasons. The author is responsible for understanding and following the principles that govern the fair use of quotations and illustrations and for obtaining written permission to publish, wherever necessary.

Captions for Illustrations, figures, graphs, and tables

Each caption should include a one-sentence title that summarizes the content of the illustrations, figures, graphs, and tables. Captions should summarize the data such that a reader can comprehend the without having to refer to the text.

Use of Italics

The following must be italicized in the Manuscript besides the APA Style:



   et al



       inter alia

  per se



 de jure and de facto

Expression of Views and Their Responsibility

The views expressed in the articles/reviews/reports published in this PJGD are those of respective authors/reviewers/researchers. Jimma University or Department of Governance and Development or the Editorial Board of PJGD shall in no way be responsible for them.